The Buffalo Model: An Approach to ABA Standard 303(c)’s Exploration of Bias, Cross-Cultural Competency, and Antiracism in Clinical and Experiential Law


This Article offers an early analysis of ABA Standard 303(c) following its recent adoption in 2022. ABA Standard 303(c) requires that law schools “shall provide education law students on bias, cross-cultural competency, and racism.” The Author suggests that 303(c) formalizes what many clinical educators have already been teaching: inclusion, justice, and belonging. Following the 2020 shootings of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, many law schools have revisited their diversity, equity, and inclusion programming and implemented various new initiatives and training. Despite current efforts, the Author notes that planning and resources will need to be allocated toward compliance efforts in order to fully meet the commands of 303(c). The Article highlights the “Buffalo Model”, a Clinical Legal Education Program at the University of Buffalo School of Law for its approach to teaching Antiracism, Cultural Humility, and Belonging. The Buffalo Model requires the completion of an asynchronous course component for all clinic students which focuses on cultural awareness and reflection on injustices impacting the practice of law. The Author advocates for legal educators to fully embrace 303(c) and explore new opportunities for deploying the intent of 303(c) through clinical and experiential legal education.


clinic, clinical education, antiracism, racism, legal education, ABA standards, ABA, education, compliance, ABA 303(c), cross-cultural, bias, inclusion, justice, belonging, George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, diversity



Kim Diana Connolly (University at Buffalo School of Law)
Elisa Lackey (University at Buffalo School of Law)



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