African-American Grandmothers: Does the Gender-Entrapment Theory Apply? Essay Response to Professor Beth Richie


My focus is on the role of African-American grandmothers and the role that they play in the cycle of incarceration that is prevalent in poor black communities. The mass incarceration of African-American men and women has affected African-American families in monumental ways. In this Essay, I will primarily focus on: (1) the history of African-American grandmothers in the United States; (2) their status when they take on the role of raising grandchildren of their incarcerated children; and (3) the impact of mass female incarceration on these children. Finally, I will offer some possible solutions to reduce the impact on the families of African-American women caught in the gender entrapment cycle of crime and imprisonment.


African American women, Domestic violence, Entrapment (Criminal law), Imprisonment, Women prisoners, United States



Jessica Dixon Weaver (Southern Methodist University)



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